Bohai oilfield has the characteristics of loose cementation, serious heterogeneity, high viscosity of crude oil, high average permeability and large amount of water injection in a single well. The breakthrough phenomenon of water injection development was serious, and the injection water erosion also caused damage to rock structure. Then we formed inefficient and ineffective circulation between injection and production wells, seriously affecting the effect of water flooding development, and bringing great risks to subsequent chemical flooding development. In order to satisty the heavy oil reservoir of high water shutoff technology needs, based on the physical chemistry, polymer materials and reservoir engineering theory, and taking the chemical analysis, detection equipment and physical simulation as an experimental method, we took the reservoir rock and fluid in SZ-361 field of Bohai oilfield as the research object to study the water plugging effect and mechanism of starch graft copolymer gel. The results showed that when the water plugging agent group was "starch（4 %）+ acrylamide（4 %） + crosslinking agent（0.036 %） + initiator（0.012 %） +anhydrous sodium sulfite（0.002 %）", the reasonable slug size of water plugging agent was between 0.025PV and 0.075PV. For the model of "edge water and vertical oil well", the oil recovery of water flooding decreases with the increase of crude oil viscosity. After water plugging in the oil well, the liquid production rate decreases when the water content drops. The higher the viscosity of crude oil is, the greater the decline of water content and the recovery rate will be, but the ultimate recovery is still lower. Compared with the model of "single water and vertical oil well", the model of "multilateral water and vertical oil well" had higher water flooding recovery, and the effect of water plugging and oil increasing was better. For the high water cut development period of reservoir, due to the impact of early water flooding and chemical flooding profile control and other measures, the remaining oil saturation near the water wells borehole area was low, but the residual oil saturation in low permeability reservoirs near the wellbore was higher. Therefore, the effect of water plugging measures on increasing oil and precipitation was much better than that of profile control measures.